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Anna Turnham (Kent and British Library) Anglo-Scottish Ambassadors and Channels of Communication, c.1558-68
With a shared border, travel routes between England and Scotland were well-established by the mid-sixteenth century. A number of paths travelled between the two countries were documented in chronicles, travel memoirs, military journals, and contemporary maps. In diplomacy, these routes were used by ambassadors to transport information (both written and oral), money, and men between the two countries. This paper will examine the English and Scottish ambassadors and messengers use of these channels of communication, specifically looking at the physical routes by land and sea, and their agency through their social network on the journey. 

Beth Cowen (Glasgow) James VI of Scotland and the Establishment of Covert Anglo-Scottish Communications, c.1586-1603
With his likely inheritance of the English throne in mind, James VI of Scotland made concerted efforts to establish relations with those in England who might support his claim. Yet keeping any communications concealed from Elizabeth I and her council presented various obstacles, as achieving and maintaining secrecy was incredibly problematic. Letters would pass through numerous hands and were particularly vulnerable to interception. This paper will examine the actual systems and networks of communication, established mainly using various messengers and agents, that James VI utilised in his attempts to accrue English support and intelligence.

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